For starters

HumanMembers of the genus Homo
HominidMembersof the family Hominidae (humans and australopithecines)
HominoidMembers of the superfamily Hominoidea (hominoids and apes)
AnthropoidMembers of the suborder Anthropoidea (monkeys, apes and hominids)
ApeMembers of the family Pongidae (great apes) and the family Hylobatidae (gibbons)
AustralpothecineMembers of the extinct hominid genera Australopithecus, Paranthropus and Ardipithecus
Anatomically modern humansMembers of the hominid species Homo sapiens

Hominines, oids, ides?!?!?

Click HERE and all will be revealed!

Unit 1 - Man's Place in Nature

Anthropocentriccentred around anthropoid
Catastrophismthe theory that the Earth's geological features were formed by a series of catastrophic events, such as floods, during Earth's history
Chain of beingcontinuum. God's natural hierarchy (humans being very near the top; 2nd to the angels)
Natural philosophywhereby science and religion exist in close harmony - all being God's work
Uniformitarianismof Hutton and Lyall. Theory that the Earth's geological features are the product of small changes over long periods of time

Unit 2 - Human Evolution as Narrative

Bipedalityupright walking on the two hind legs
Culture/civilizationthe sum total of human behaviour, including technological, mythological, aesthetic and institutional activities
Encephalizationthe process of brain enlargement
Narrativeof story telling
Palaeoanthropologythe study of the physical and behavioural aspects of humans in prehistory
Terrestrialitymode of locomotion in which the animal remains confined to the ground

Unit 3 - Historical Views

Ecological nicherole in the ecosystem played by a species
Homininecollective term for all human-related species
Phylogenic treebranching ancestral relations among species
Single species hypothesishypothesis suggesting that only one species of hominine existed at any one time

Unit 4 - Modern Evolutionary Theory

Adaptationprocess by which a species changes through natural selection, becoming well suited to its environment.
Adaptive landscapegraphical description of the average fitness of a population compared with the relative frequencies of genotypes in it. Combinations of alleles that confer high fitness will be seen as peaks on the landscape; those conferring lower fitness as valleys
Adaptive radiationproliferation of variants following the appearance of evolutionary innovation; typically occurs with establishment of new clade.
Allelesalternative form of a gene (eg different eye colour); all genetic loci comprise two alleles, whose effects may differ depending on whether they are identical or different.

One form of a gene that can exist at a single gene locus. Often there are just two alleles, one frequently dominant to the other. Sometimes there are several alleles, only two of which are present in an individual, eg those responsible for the ABO blood group system of humans
Allopatric speciationspeciation via geographically separated populations. The divergence of two or more populations into separate species after they have become separated geographically
Anagenesisevolution by gradual change within a lineage
Analogyshared ancestry eg. the anatomical similarities between the two distant species of wolf reflect convergent evolution or analogy
Cladea group of species containing the common ancestor of a group and all its ancestors
Cladogenesisevolution by lineage splitting
Convergent (or parallel) evolutionresult of natural selection producing similar adaptations in separate lineages.
Differential reproductive success"natural selection is differential reproductive success with heritable favourable traits, bestowing a survival advantage on those individuals that possess them"
Ecological nichesthe role in the ecosystem played by a species
Founder effectthe formation of a new population when a sub population becomes isolated from the parent population. It is associated with a loss of genetic variation and sometimes promotes speciation

The phenomonen whereby the frequency of a particular character in a population is largely determined by the frequency of that character in the small original (or founding) population rather than by the subsequent operation of natural selection
Genotypethe genetic profile of an individual - the specific composition of alleles of a single gene or the entire complement of genes of an organism
Heterozygousthe presence of two different alleles at a genetic locus

term describing a gene that has different alleles in the homologous chromosomes of a diploid set, usually one dominant and one recessive (eg Gg) but not always (eg the AB genotype of the ABO blood group system)
Homologya character shared by a set of species and present in their common ancestor (compare analogy)
Homozygouspresence of two identical alleles at a locus
Macroevolutionevolution at the scale of important innovations (origin of new species and trends among groups of related species)
Modern synthesisa consensus, encompassing three principle tenets
(1) evolution proceeds in a gradual manner, with accumulation of small changes over long periods of time
(2) this change results from natural selection, with the differential reproductive success founded on favourable traits.
(3) these processes explain not only changes within the species but also higher-level processes, such as the origin of new species, producing the great diversity of life, extant and extinct
Mutationa change in genetic sequence
Natural Selectionthe process by which favoured variants in a population thrive
Neo Darwinismthe modern version of Darwin's Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
Neotenyslowdown in embryological development
Phenotypethe physical characters of an organism. The sum of all the characters that an organism possesses; or one particular character, eg, the purple-grain phenotype of maize. The phenotype is determined by the interaction of the genotype and the environment
Phyletic graduationmode of evolution dominated by gradual change within a lineage
Punctuated equilibriuma mode of evolution characterized by periods of stasis interspersed with brief episodes of rapid change
Recessivean allele is recessive if two identical alleles are required at the locus to express its phenotype
Speciationthe evolutionary splitting of a lineage to produce two daughter species. Process by which a new species arises by the splitting of one species to give rise to two or more species
Survival of the fittestprinciple of natural selection (Darwin did not use this term)
Sympatric speciationspeciation in a subpopulation whose range overlaps with that of the parental population
Traitunit of phenotype

Unit 5 - Physical context of evolution

Biomea characteristic ecological environment, such as temporate forest, grassland savannah
Biomic generalistsspecies that can live in a wide range of environments, such as temperate forest, scrub and savanna
Biomic specialistsspecies restricted to one environment only
Biotathe animal and plant life that characterizes a particular region
Cenozoicyoungest era of the Panerozoic, consisting of Neogene and palaeogen Periods (Tertiary sub-Era) and Quaternary period. Spans from 65 mya to present day
Eurybiomicability of a species to utilize food resources from several different biomes
Geological periodssubdivision of the last 590 my into 11 period beginning with the Cambrian at 590 mya and ending with Quartenary, dating from 2 mya.
Habitat hypothesis(Elisabeth Yrba) species' responses to climate change represent the principal engine of evolutionary change
Milankovich Cycleregular cycles of long-term global climate change with periodicities of about 10,000, 41,000 and 23,000 years
Red Queen hypothesis"run faster and faster in order to stay in the same place"
Stenobiomica mode of subsistence in which a species is restricted to one biome for obtaining food resources
Vicariancecreation of allopatric populations from once continuous populations, either by formation of physical barriers or dispersal of populations across such barriers. Mechanism for evolutionary change proposed by Elisabeth Vrba's habitat hypothesis

Unit 6 - Extinction and patterns of evolution

Cambrian explosionthe brief (in geological terms) moment during which many different forms of multicellular organisms evolved, a little more than half a billion years ago
Catastrophismthe theory that the Earth's geological features were formed by a series of catastrophic events, such as floods, during Earth's history
Mass extinction eventsin the history of life during which at least 50 percent of the Earth's species became extinct in a geologically brief time:
Late Ordovician - 12%
Late Devonian - 14%
Late Permian - 52%
Late Triassic - 12%
Late Cretaceous - 11%
Phylamajor body plans
Tetrapodsa four-footed animal
Uniformitarianismtheory that the Earth's geological features are the product of small changes over long periods of time

Unit 7 - Dating methods

Absolute datingtechniques that provide information about age by a physical measurement of the material at the site in question, such as radiometric dating
Carbon 14 datingan absolute dating method, based on the decay of the radioactive isotope of carbon, carbon-14
Electron spin resonancea technique of absolute dating that is based on natural radiation in the soil affecting the state of electrons in a target material, such as teeth
Faunal correlation techniquesa method of relative dating based on species reaching a similar evolutionary stage at the same time in history in different geographical localities
Palaeomagnetismmagnetism induced in volcanic rocks as they cool, recording the direction of the Earth's prevailing magnetic field at the time
Radiometric datingabsolute dating, based on the known decay rate of radioisotopes
Radiopotassium/argon datingan absolute dating method using decay of potassium-40 (K-40) as a 'clock'. K-40 decays to the gas, argon-40 (Ar-40). If the relative proportions of K-40 and Ar-40 in a volcanic rock are measured, the age of the rock can be calculated because the half-life of K-40 is known to be 1193 million years. The K-40:Ar-40 decay system is useful because during a volcanic eruption any Ar-40, a gas, that is present, will be lost. This resets the 'clock' to zero thereby permitting accurate dating
Relative datingtechniques that provide information about a site by referring to what is known at other sites or other sources of information, such as faunal correlation
Stratigraphic layerdistinct layer within the stratigraphic column characterized by specific rock type and also possibly by typical fossils where the rock is sedimentary
Thermoluminescence datinga method of absolute dating based on the influences exerted by natural radiation in the ground on electrons within a target material

Unit 8 - Systematics: morphological and molecular

Autapomorphya derived character not shared with other species
Binomenthe specific name part of the species name, eg Homo (genus) sapien (binomen)
Character statethe presence of absence of a particular character, as in cladistic analysis
Cladisticsthe school of evolutionary biology that seeks relationships among species based on the polarity (primitive or derived) of characters
Cladograma diagrammatic representation of species relationships
Classificationarrangement of organisms into hierarchical groups
Derived charactera character acquired by some members of an evolutionary group that serves to unite them in a taxonomic sense and distinguish them from other species in the group
Evolutionary systematicsa system of classification that emphasizes evolutionary history
Gel electrophoresiselectrical properties of proteins
Gene treethe history of a particular gene in related lineages
Genetic distancea measure of evolutionary separation between lineages
Homoplasiessimilar characters produced by convergent evolution (parallel)
Molecular evolutionary clockthe concept that the accumulation of genetic differences between lineages after splitting can be used to determine the temporal history of the lineages
Molecular systematicsthe use of molecular biological data for classification and systematics
Monophyletic groupthe set of species containing a common ancestor and all its descendants
Outgroup comparisonlooking down hierarchy at more distantly related species
Paraphyletic groupset of species containing an ancestral species and some, but not all, of its descendants
Parsimony techniquea phylogenetic reconstruction in which the phylogeny of a group of species is inferred to be the branching pattern requiring the smallest number of evolutionary changes
Phenetic classificationa method of classification in which species are grouped together on the basis of morphological similarities
Phylogenya branching diagram showing the ancestral relations among species
Polaritythe assessment of a character as either primitive or derived
Polymorphismthe situation in which a population contains more than one allele at a genetic locus
Polyphyletic groupa set of species deriving from more than one common ancestor
Primitive charactersa character that was present in a common ancestor of a group and is therefore shared by all members of that group
Species treethe population history of lineages that derive from a common ancestor
Symplesiomorphya shared primitive character
Synapomorphya shared derived character
Systematicsthe theory and practise of biological classification
Taxonany named group, such as species, genus or family

Unit 9 - Science of Burial

Taphonomythe study of the processes by which bones become fossilized

Unit 10 - Primate heritage

Adapidaefamily of extinct, lemur-like primates that lived during the Eocene epoch and died out in late Miocene epoch.
Adaptive radiationthe proliferation of variants following the appearance of an evolutionary innovation; it typically occurs with the establishment of a new clade
Arboreal hypothesistheory of primate origin, proposing that the characteristic features of primates derive from adaptations for life in trees
Brachiationmode of locomotion through trees using the arms for hanging and swinging (eg as in gibbons)
Omomyidaefamily of early true primates considered ancestral to tarsiers
Placental mammals(Eutheria) - subclass of class Mammalia in which embryos are nourised in the uterus via placentae and are born at a relatively advanced stage. All neonates suckle milk for a period before progressing to adult food. Primates are an order within the subclass Eutheria
Plesiadapiformesgroup of fossil primates living in the Palaeocene and early Eocene, 65 to 55 mya. Their link with later primates is doubtful
Prosimians (strepsirhines)primate belong to the suborder Prosimii, ie lemurs, lorises and tarsiers
Visual predation hypothesisMatt Cartmill's hypothesis that the features of primates represent adaptation of a small arboreal mammal for stalking insect prey which are spotted visually and caught in the hands

Unit 11 - Bodies, size and shape

Allen's Rulepopulations of a geographically widespread species living in warm regions will have longer extremities than those inhabiting cold climates
Bergmann's Rulein a geographically widespread species, populations in warmer parts of the range will be smaller-bodied than those in colder parts of the range
LucyAustralopithecus afarensis
Mbuti pygmiesa people of average height about 1.3 metres, living in moist humid forest in Africa
Neanderthals humans living in Europe, part of Asia and the Middle East, between 15,000 and < 30,000 years ago. Currently regarded as side branch of the human evolutionary tree, not direct ancestors of modern humans.
Nilotic peoplea tall, long-limbed people characterized by an average height of about 2 metres, living in an open environment in Africa
Polygynycondition in which an individual male has more than one mate within a breeding season whilst females have a maximum of one mate
Robusticityathletic build

Unit 12 - Bodies, brains and energy

Altricial strategyof species producing extremely immature young that are unable to feed or care for themselves
Kleiber curvethe relationship between body weight and basal energy requirement for different animal species that shows that as body weight increases, the basal energy requirement per kilogram decreases
K-selectionthe life history strategy in which species have a low potential reproductive output
Life history variablesfeatures such as age at weaning, age at sexual maturity and longevity, which determine the nature of a species overall life.
Precocial strategyof species that produce relatively mature young that can fend for themselves to a degree immediately at birth.
r-selectionthe life history strategy in which a species has a hight potential reproductive output.

Unit 13 - Bodies, behaviour and social structure

'Exploded' unimale polygynywhere a single male defends a group of females and their offspring but the females do not live as a group and, instead, are spread over a wide area
Dimorphic caninesmuch bigger canines, in much bigger (generally) males. (polygynous)
Monogamycondition in which individuals have one mating partner over a certain time period such as one breeding season or a lifetime
Monomorphic caninescanines being the same size in both males and females of a species (monogamous)
Multimale polygynywhere several males cooperate and defend a group of widely distributed females and their offspring
Sexual dimorphismthe state in which some aspects of a species' anatomy consistently differs in size or form between males and females
Unimale polygynywhere a single male has control over a group of females and their offspring

Unit 14 - Nonhuman models of early hominines

Behavioural ecology modelthe use of principles relating to social structures of apes living today in specific environments to reconstruct possible social structures in extinct hominine ancestors in changing ecological conditions
Phylogenical comparisonstechnique by which modern primates are used to model the social organization of extinct hominines (Richard Wrangham)
Specific primate modelthe modelling of the social organization of early hominines by comparison with specific living species of primate. Savannah babbon, chimp and bonobo useful for this approach

Unit 15 - Ape and human relations: morphological and molecular views

'Ape' gradesuite of similar adaptations in apes. Term first used by Gaylord Simpson to distinguish ape grade from human grade and provide argument against classifying humans and apes in same family (yes, but what is it?!)
Axial skeletonthe vertebrae and ribs
Catarrhinia primate infraorder consisting of Old World monkeys, apes and humans
Diastemagap between the lateral incisor and the canine
Gene Treehistory of a particular gene in related lineages
Hominidany member of the human family Hominidae, including Australopithecus and Homo species.
Hominoideaall living and extinct species of humans and apes
Knuckle walkinga type of quadrupedal locomotion used by chimpanzees and gorillas, where some body weight is supported on back of knuckles, rather than palms or fingers.
Miocenefourth epoch of the Tertiary period, about 23.3 to 5.2 mya
Mitochondriaorganelles that occur in most eukaryote cells, varying in size and shape. Outer membrane + internal highly folded membrane within. The TCA cycle and the link reaction occur in the matrix. Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation occur at the inner membrane.
Mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA)a circular molecule of DNA within all mitochondria coding for some of the proteins within mitochondria
Molecular clockconcept that the acumulation of genetic differences between lineages after splitting can be used to determine the temporal history of the lineages
Parsimonya phylogenic reconstruction in which the phylogeny of a group of species is inferred to be the branching pattern requiring the smallest number of evolutionary changes.
Prognathic craniumjutting forward of face and jaw (prognathism)
Species treepopulation history of lineages that derive from a common ancestory

Unit 16 - Origin of the Hominoidea

Arboreal frugivoryeats fruit in the trees!
Intermembral indexa comparison of the length of the upper and lower limbs
Orthograde locomotionin which the body remains more vertical relative to the ground
Pronograde locomotionin which the body remains horizontal relative to the ground

Unit 17 - Origin of bipedalism

'Man the provisioner' hypothesisrelates to males gathering food and taking it back to a home base to be shared with his female(s) and offspring. With the male providing food, females would be able to reproduce at shorter intervals giving them selective advantage over other large hominines. Selective advantage of bipedalism for the males also relates to the ability to carry things in the hands.
'Woman the gatherer' hypothesisstates that females were gathering plant foods by means of digging sticks and carrying many small items of food. The selective advantage of bipedalism relates to the need to carry things in the hands
Heel strikethe stage in the striding gait of humans when the foot makes contact with the ground, first with the heel
Mosaic evolutionprocess by which different aspects of a species' morphology evolve at different rates
Stance phasestage of the bipedal striding gait; fololwing heel strike, that leg remains extended and supports the body, the stance phase, while the other leg goes through the swing phase with the body continuing to move forward
Striding gaitthe gait of human bipedalism
Swing phasethe phase in the striding gait of humans in which the leg pushes off using power from the great toe and flexes slightly as it swings under the body
Valgus anglethe angle subtended by the femur from the knee to the hip

Unit 18 - Jaws and teeth

Cuspcone-shaped prominence on the surface of a tooth especially of a molar or premolar
Dental patternthe organization and numbers of different types of teeth, incisors, canines, premolars and molars in the jaw
Tooth eruption patternsequence and timing of eruption of permanent teeth

Unit 19 - The earliest known hominines

Craniumthe skull minus the lower jaw
Sagittal cresta bony crest at the top of the skull, running from the front to the back, and characteristic of larger robust australopithecines, eg, Australopithecus aethiopicus

Unit 20 - the australopithecines

Brain endocastcranium filled with fossilized minerals (?)
Gracile skeletonsterm implies a light and delicate build for a skeleton in contrast with a heavier more massive skeleton
Masseter muscleone of the muscles involved in moving the lower jaw during chewing (below cheek bone)
Robust skeletonsrelates to the 'robust' australopithecines, considered to have more massive skeleton than the delicately built 'gracile' australopithecines
Semicircular canals/vestibular systemparts of the inner ear that are involved in maintaining balance
Temporal muscleone of the two muscles in the lower jaw used for chewing in primates (which is the forehead in the diagrams!)
Zygomatic archthe bony arch of the cheek formed by connection of the zygomatic and temporal bones

Unit 21 - Early Homo

Lumpersschool of classification advocating interpreting anatomical differences as within species variation and incorporating variants into single species
Postorbital constrictionthe narrowing of the skull immediately behind the forehead
Splittersschool of classification that uses each variant in anatomical structure to indicate a separate species

Anatomy comparisons

Australopithecus afarensisHomo habilisHomo rudolfensis
Brain ~380-450cm3Small brain case; brain ~ 500 cm3Fairly large brain case
Lower part of jaw is large and protrudingSmall protruding faceBroad flat face
Patterns of wear on teeth indicate fruit eatingPatterns of wear on teeth indicate fruit eatingPatterns of wear on teeth indicate fruit eating
Diastema separates second incisor from canine
strong curved brow ridgelight brow ridge

Unit 22 - Hominine relations

Basicranium flexionposition of the canal through which the spinal cord enters the basicranium in humans (close to the centre and adaptations for upright posture, whereas in apes the canal is located near the back of the skull)
Functional complexa grouping of anatomical traits into a functional package - eg, the grouping together of traits relating to chewing of food
Ontogenythe process of growth and development of an individual from conception onward

Unit 23 - Early tool technologies

Corethe core of a stone or cobble left after removal of flakes in Oldowan stone tool technology
Flakesshards removed from stone cores and appropriate for immediate use as cutting tools (Oldowan technology) and also for further refinement into bifaces (Acheulean technology)
Hammer stonestone tool used for striking a core during percussion knapping
Oldowan technologythe stone-tool industry characterized by flakes and chopping tools produced by hard-hammer percussion of small cobbles; it began 2.50 million years ago and continued in parts of Africa and Asia until 20,000 years ago, where it is more properly called chopping-tool assemblages
Percussion stone knappingthe technique used by hominines to produce flakes reliably and precisely from stone cores.

Archaeology (and tools)

Earlier Stone Age (ESA) 2.6 mya Mode ILower Palaeolithic 2.0 mya Mode 1
1.5 myaMode IIMode II
Mode III200,000 years agoMode III
Middle Stone Age (MSA)300,000 myaMode IIIMiddle Palaeolithic40,000 years agoMode III
Later Stone Age (LSA)60,000 years agoMode IVUpper PalaeolithicMode V
Agricultural Revolution


Mode ISimple chopping tools made by knocking a few flakes off a small cobble
Mode IITools requiring more extensive conceptualization and preparation (eg bifacial handaxes)
Mode IIILarge cores are preshaped by the removal of large flakes and then used as a source of more standardized flakes that are retouched to produce a large range of artifacts
Mode IVTechnology characterized by narrow stone blades struck from a prepared core
Mode VConsists of microlith technology, which constitutes the production of small, delicate artifacts

Unit 24 - The changing position of Homo erectus

Provenance of a fossilthe location of a fossil or artifact in the prehistoric record

Unit 25 - New technologies

Acheuleanname applied to a type of stone-tool industry characterized by large bifaces including handaxes; it began approximately 1.5 mya and continued in Africa and parts of Eurasia until some 200,000 years ago

Unit 26 - Hunter or scavenger?

Kill sitessites where carnivores have killed their prey
The central-place foraging hypothesis
The home-base food sharing hypothesisan interpretation of accumulations of stone tools and animal bones as a site to which early Homo hunter-gatherers brought meat and plant food to be shared out and eaten
The hunting hypothesisthe view that hunting was the primary human adaptation

Unit 27 - The Neanderthal enigma

Aurignacian technologythe first major Palaeolithic tool complex in Europe. This style was first discovered at Aurignac in the French Pyrenees, 1880. Aurignacian tools are charaterised by long, retouched blades, short, steep-sided scrapers and bone points with split bases. This type of tool manufacture began about 40,000 years ago in Europe and lasted several thousand years.
Chatelperrionian industrythe stone-tool industry apparently associated with late Neanderthals
Mousterian technologystone tool technology associated with Neanderthals

Unit 28 - The origin of modern humans: anatomical evidence

Anatomically modern humansthe term usually used to describe the first members of Homo sapiens
Genetic driftrandom changes in gene frequency in a population
Multiregional evolution hypothesisthe hypothesis that modern humans evolved in near concert in different parts of the Old World
Out-of-Africa hypothesisthe hypothesis that modern humans originated recently in Africa; based on fossil evidence
Regional continuitya prediction of the multiregional evolution hypothesis that certain morphological features will be characteristic of particular geographical locations, and will be present from early Homo erectus times through the emergence of modern Homo sapiens

Unit 29 - The origin of modern humans: genetic evidence

Alu elementsspecific sequences of DNA of ~300 base pairs in length that are inserted in large numbers into the nuclear genome and are usually not removed
Coalescence timethe time in a lineage's history at which all the variants of a particular gene converge into a single, ancestral form
Coalescentan ancestral gene which gives rise to a lineage of variants
Garden of Eden hypothesisanother name for the hypothesis that modern humans arose as a small isolated population whose descendents spread throughout the Old World
Intermatch distributionsthe use of genetic variation between pairs of modern populations to infer population events in the past
Microsatellitesshort sequences of DNA that contain many repeats of two to five nucleotide segments
Mismatch distributionthe use of genetic variation in modern populations to infer population events in the past
Mitochondrial Eve hypothesisthe hypothesis, based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) evidence, that modern humans evolved recently in Africa
Nuclear genomethe package of genetic material in the nucleus
Weak garden of Eden hypothesissuggested by Jarpending and Rogers to explain the results of their mismatch distribution analysis of mtDNA. Their results indicate a small founding population of modern humans fragmented into separate populations. These groups are spread out to found the modern populations in Africa, Europe and Asia

Unit 30 - The origin of modern humans: archeological evidence

No new

Unit 31- Evolution of the brain, intelligence and consciousness

Broca's areaa region of the brain that connects with areas of the motor cortex that control muscles in the face and vocal tract. It translates the perceptual aspects of language, coded by Wernicke's area, into a grammatical structure and then into instructions for the motor cortex to produce appropriate sounds or writing movements.
Encephalization quotienta measure of relative brain size (EQ) (in comparison to body size)
Lobes of the brain:
Frontalpart of the brain's cerebral hemispheres that is anterior to the central sulcus
Parietalpart of the brain's cerebral cortex posterior to central sulcus; superior to the temporal lobe
Temporalinterior and lateral part of each cerebral hemisphere. Contains hippocampus
Occipitalmost posterior of each of the brain's hemispheres and location of primary visual cortex
Cerebellumcauliflower-like structure which forms largest part of the hindbrain - helps to control movement and posture
Lunate sulcusin the human brain, a short groove lying in the margin between the occipital and temporal lobes
Man the hunterview in teh 1960s that hunting was the primary adaptation in human evolution - this view linked to the advantage of bipedalism
Man the social animalmodel proposed recently to explain the selective advantage of hominine brain expansion. For Homo, interactions within a social group are complex and important for survival and ability to produce offspring
Man the toolmakermodel proposed in the 1950s to explain the selective advantage of tripling the hominine brain size derived from ability to make more complex stone tools
Secondary altricialityin Homo sapiens altriciality is considred to be secondary because other primates are precicial, typical for species with long gestation and large neonatal brain size. Altriciality is more typical of species with short gestation and small neonatal brain size.

Unit 32 - The evolution of language

Language centres of the brainAngular gyrus, Arcuate fasciculus, Face area, Visual cortex, Sylvian fissure, Wernicke's area PLUS
Broca's arearegion of the brain that connects with areas of the motor conrtex that controls muscles in the face and vocal tract. It translates the perceptual aspects of language, coded by Wernicke's area, into a grammatical structure and then into insturctions for the motor cortex to produce appropriate sounds or writing movements.

Unit 33 - Art in prehistory

Entoptic imagescharacteristic images experienced during trance-induced hallucination
Shamanistic artart associated with hallucinations seen during trance experiences, which may be part of a ritual
The hunting magic hypothesisAbbe Breuil's view that prehistoric art relates to ensuring successful hunts and propitiating the animal victims
Therianthropesa chimera of human/animal typically seen during dppe trance and depicted in shamanistic art.

Unit 34 - New Worlds

Beringia Land Bridgeland bridge, crossing the Bering Strait, periodically linked Alaska and Siberia during the Pleistocene epoch when the sea was up to 200m below today's level. During the last ice age, Beringia allowed people to cross from Asia to the New World
Clovis peoplename given to the people who colonized America about 12000 years ago
Cordilleran Ice Sheetthe ice sheet covering North West America during the last glaciation, about 12,000 years ago
Folsom culturesthe people who replaced the Clovis in America from about 10900 years ago
Laurentide Ice Sheetthe ice sheet covering the centre and east of America at the peak of the last glaciation, about 18,000 years ago
The Clovis Point the typical fluted stone projectile point manufactured by the Clovis people
The homogeneity hypothesisthe view that the early colonists of Australia were anatomically homogenous and that the variability of modern aborigines resutls from genetic and cultural processes acting on a small founding population
The threee source languagesAmerind, Na-Dene, Aleut-Eskimo

Unit 35 - the first villages

!Kung projectproject involving the study of socioenonomic life of the !Kung San Bushmen of the Kalahari
Demic expansion modelthe theory that the spread of agriculture during the Neolithic was by means of population migration
Fertile Crescentthe area in the Near East where plant and animal domestication began about 10,000 years ago
Neolithic Transition Agricultural Revolution beginning around 12 000 years ago

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